Strategia per le opzioni binarie di Igor Copernicus. tesi » girusviaggi.it, il sito di Bruno Osimo » Page 3
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Visconti 18 Milano Relatore: Professor Bruno Osimo Correlatore: Professor Vincenzo Bonini Diploma di mediazione linguistica 17 ottobre 1 The Dream is a law to itself; and as well quarrel with a rainbow for showing, or for not showing, a secondary arch. The Dream knows best, and the Dream, I say again, is the responsible party. The first four points have been considered in earlier communications This presentation will address itself, in the main, to the last point.
Since the properties of metaphor as revealed in the dream will be our concern, let us begin with a dictionary definition of the term: Metaphor. The roots are from the Greek meta meaning over and phero, meaning bear. It comes into play in situations where an idea is genuinely new. It has no name and there is no word to express it. Where the gap exists in situations of this sort it is through the use of metaphor that we can take a conceptual leap forward and establish an initial abstract position in relation to a new element in experience.
Langer7 also notes the paradoxical features of this kind of abstract thought and cts opton costruttore di strategie per opzioni binarie is a point of crucial significance in connection with dreaming.
She points out that the use of metaphor implies that abstract thinking is going on in a paradoxical sense. Metaphor is essentially a conceptualizing process but one that uses concrete imagery as the instrument for arriving at the abstraction. If we extend the concept of metaphor to include the visual mode, we may restate its essential characteristics as follows as a first step in exploring its applicability to dream phenomena: 1. Metaphor involves the use of word or image in an improbable context.
This is done in order to capture and express strategia per le opzioni binarie di Igor Copernicus level of meaning that is freshly arrived at and in that sense new. The use of metaphor creates a greater impact and is more revealing of essential features than a literal statement. Our main thesis is that dreaming involves rapidly changing presentational sequences which in their unity amount to a metaphorical statement major metaphor.
Each element minor metaphor in the sequence has metaphorical attributes organized toward the end of establishing in a unified way an over-all metaphorical description of the new ideas and relations and their implications as these rise to the surface during periods of activated sleep. In contrast to the brain-damaged patient in whom the power of abstraction is lost, the dreamer retains his abstracting ability.
The physiologically altered brain milieu, however, does exert a limiting influence. Let us now consider dreaming in the light of the three properties of metaphor described above. In fact, this is one of the features distinguishing cognitive content during activated sleep from content recoverable during other phases of sleep.
Incongruity of elements, inappropriate relations, displacement, are all well known attributes of dreams. Unless this were so, dreams would hardly be worth pursuing. It is the nature of the newness that has to be defined.
It is precisely around this question that classical psychoanalytic notions about dreaming have been challenged by a host of critical comment converging from such disparate sources as experimentalists on the one hand8 and phenomenologists on the other,9 as well as from within the ranks of psychoanalysts themselves.
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The model is that of energy transfer within a closed system with the dreamer limited in his expression of novelty to his own particular repertoire of artful camouflage. True novelty is drained out in the insistence on the role of unchanging instinctual energies linked to infantile wishes in accounting for the fact of dreaming.
To arrive at an understanding of how they come definizione di unopzione put during the dream state we have to replace metaphysical speculation with a more 4 rigorous analysis of the psychological needs of the sleeping human organism and how the symbolic expression of these needs is influenced by the changes in brain milieu that occur during sleep.
The former relate to the content of dreams, the latter to their form. While asleep our brain is functioning differently and our psychological system is responsive to a different input and organized toward a different behavioral goal than in the waking state. When there are sufficient quantitative changes in brain milieu a qualitative change comes about that exerts a tremendously significant limiting influence on the articulating psychological system.
Thought processes become bound to concrete presentations. The intact individual in the waking state is capable of thought processes reflecting events extended in time through a discursive strategia per le opzioni binarie di Igor Copernicus of symbolic organization but he is at the same time capable of borrowing concrete expressions for intended metaphorical use.
The brain-damaged patient cannot abstract and cannot employ metaphor. The closest he comes to it is in the use of unintended metaphor or quasimetaphor. The dreamer is somewhere in between. He has not lost the power of abstraction, but a sufficient alteration in brain milieu has occurred to strategia per le opzioni binarie di Igor Copernicus the way in which the abstraction is arrived at and the way in which it gains expression.
He is forced into a concrete sensory mode and, hence, the need to manipulate visual presentations toward the goal of a metaphorical explication of an inner state. I suggest that this necessity arises from physiological rather than psychological considerations. Under the conditions of sleep, behavior is not and cannot be directed toward the outside world. Input channels close down and normal motor effector pathways are inhibited.
Consciousness, whether while dreaming or awake, cannot be divorced from the activity of the organism. The existence of a sensory mode of conscious expression does appear to be appropriate to the only effector system available to the sleeping organism, namely, the arousal mechanism or the reticular activating system referred to as the vigilance system by Hernandez-Peon The behavioral 5 response in this instance would be an internal one in the form of an influence upon the level of arousal.
To develop this point further requires emphasis on the intimate relationship of conscious experience at a given moment to the activity the individual is engaged in. Activity has a different complexion in the waking state than it has during activated sleep. In the case of the dreamer, strategia dellopzione ir has to do with internal change or, more exactly, the potential for internal change, namely the possibility of a change from a state of activated sleep to one of full arousal.
1.4. Come colmare la distanza cronotopica tra il prototesto e il lettore del metatesto
In the waking state all new afferent stimuli carry a double message to the central nervous system, one mediated through the reticular strategia per le opzioni binarie di Igor Copernicus and exerting an arousal effect and the other, which has an informational effect, through the direct sensory pathways to the cortex. While the dreamer is awake the factor of arousal makes possible a more effective orientation to the informational aspects of the stimulus.
The dual significance of afferent stimuli is preserved in the dreaming state but with two important differences. An internal source of afferent stimuli is mobilized out of experiential data and the relative importance of the informational and arousal aspects of the stimuli is reversed. In the dreaming state the informational aspects serve the need to sustain and modulate the arousal level and, if necessary, bring about a full arousal effect.
The metaphor, through the properties of vividness, emphasis, incongruity, and dramatic presentation, is suited to do just that. The obscurity of the metaphor may be related to the complexity and degree of strangeness of the situation being represented.
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The movement of the metaphor is the result of attention-directing processes brought into operation once initial activation occurs. The feelings rising to the surface at this time are new in the sense of not having come clearly into focus during the waking state.
They act as motivational processes, exerting a further energizing or arousal effect serving to aumento delle opzioni binarie or direct further behavioral change. The task before the dreamer is to express relations he has never before experienced. The sensory effects streaming down to the arousal center employ the visual mode predominantly and as these generate further arousal new and relevant motivational systems or feelings are strategia per le opzioni binarie di Igor Copernicus.
Feelings are, as Leeper emphasizes, processes capable of being touched off by very slight stimuli. In the case of the dreamer, such stimuli generally take the form of the day residue. Other characteristics of feelings as a subclass of motives are also relevant to dreaming. These include: 1.
Motives modify perceptual processes so that they become organized in a way that makes relevant items stand out forcefully. Elements appearing in dreams are selected on the basis of relevance. Beginning with an affective residue reexperienced at the onset of activated sleep, there is a heightened focal attention to the significant recent event responsible for this affective residue. Motives initiate exploratory activity. The dreamer embarks upon a longitudinal exploration of relevant past data.
Motives act as regulatory mechanisms in the service of psychological homeostasis. As a consequence of the feelings initially evoked at the onset of dreaming and as further developed by the exposure of relevant past experiential data, the dreamer moves toward the resolution of any resulting psychological dysequilibrium, either by summoning up defenses or by the creative utilization of positive resources and growth potential.
The Use of Metaphor. It is in this sense that the dream is essentially a metaphor in motion. As indicated above, the dreamer has to concern himself with understanding new data. The reason a day residue serves as the precipitating mechanism for the subject matter of a dream is precisely because it is experienced as a faint beam of light playing upon shadowy, unknown, and sometimes rather frightening territory.
The 7 exploration of this territory — that is, the capacity to engage with the new — requires the power of abstraction. The dreamer, forced to employ a sensory mode, has to build the abstraction out of concrete blocks in the form of visual sequences.
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The resulting metaphor can be viewed as an interface phenomenon where the biological system establishes the sensory medium as the vehicle for this expression and the psychological system furnishes the specific content. To appreciate more fully the need for metaphorical expression during periods of activated sleep we have to introduce the concept of social vigilance.
This concept involves an orientation to and exploration of events that impinge on the human organism in a novel way and which are, therefore, capable of influencing or changing the current level of social homeostasis.
For the human organism, events of this kind tend to assume a mediated and symbolic form rather than the immediate and physically intrusive form characterizing vigilance operations in lower animals. An area of ignorance may be uncovered which then serves as a stimulus to growth and mastery or an area of psychological vulnerability may be exposed in which case efforts at mastery may be handicapped by defensive operations with the result that false or mythic explanations may either color the picture or even predominate in shaping the response.
Vigilance theory can be linked to dreaming by conceiving of the activated sleep state as instigated by a built-in physiologically governed mechanism providing the organism with periodic opportunities throughout the night to process internal or external data in such a way that awakening can occur if necessary by bypassing the main cyclical and gradual variations in levels of sleep.